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Gorbachev and his Hangmen

Spies for Anglo-American Secret Services

 

The History of the USSR & the Peoples’ Democracies

Chapter 24, Section 4 (C24S4) 

 

Saed Teymuri

 

Mikhail Gorbachev was a British spy, providing top secret nuclear-military intelligence to the MI6. In his 1990s memoirs, Gorbachev confessed:

I laid out in front of the British Prime Minister a large map on which all stocks of nuclear weapons were drawn in thousandths. And each of these cells, I said, is quite enough to destroy all life on Earth. This means that all living things can be destroyed by the accumulated nuclear reserves 1000 times! (Life and Reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Chapter 8) (IMG)

The Gorbachev group helped entrench the corrupt bureaucrats in the Eurasian state, while allowing the Gorbachev faction to suppress the proletariat. Such class struggles were reflected in the strengthening of the Titoist faction at the expense of the communist faction in Eurasian institutions.

Under the guise of fighting the corrupt bureaucracy, the British spy Gorbachev embarked on a project of systematically expanding bureaucracy, hence to expand economic corruption and the wealth of the oligarchs. Under the guise of fighting the chaos and the corrupt mafia, Gorbachev expanded the very things he pretended to oppose. This is confirmed by Gorbachev's own neoliberal economic advisor at the time, Yuri Maltsev, who defected to the United States in the late 1980s, served on such US government agencies as the United States Institute for Peace (USIP), and provided advisory on national security and economic matters to the US Congress. Maltsev wrote:

The budget cuts appeared to be a reality when Gorbachev sacked 600,000 bureaucrats from central operations of the ministries — which amounts to 30 percent to 50 percent of each department. Alongside that, however, he also created a set of new mega-enterprises to substitute for the ministries. A study I did of these new enterprises at the time showed they hired 720,000 people, most of them just-fired bureaucrats, but with a generous 35 percent salary increase. Gorbachev's "cuts" actually represented a twenty percent increase in the managerial sector of the Soviet State, which was exactly the point of the move. The old structures of the command economy began to evaporate with all these changes, reversals, and talk of creating a market. But since no market was actually set up, everything [in terms of the corrupt bureaucracy] came to a standstill. (Requiem for Marx, Ludwig von Mises Institute, Yuri N. Maltsev, 1993, p. 22) (IMG)

Maltsev continued:

Thus Gorbachev's new "market" … piled new regulations and ministries on top of the old.... (Requiem for Marx, Ludwig von Mises Institute, Yuri N. Maltsev, 1993, p. 22) (IMG)

Gorbachev also created a privatized corrupt bureaucratic mafia structures which he falsely named 'cooperatives' to make them appear socialistic. Maltsev wrote:

The Law on Cooperatives – a new regulation allowing pseudo-private ownership – seemed to be a step in the right direction. But in fact, the newly created cooperatives became an organized mafia themselves, extracting and paying out bribes at an unprecedented rate. As soon as a person would start a business, the fire department would arrive to close everything down and then wait for bribes. A person could sue the fire department, but he would have to pay a bribe to the judge. In the Soviet Union, people learned that it is better to pay bribes directly. (Requiem for Marx, Ludwig von Mises Institute, Yuri N. Maltsev, 1993, p. 22) (IMG)

The cooperatives, which were ostensibly meant to benefit the consumers, largely did not sell to the consumers hence further driving the process of consumer goods up, making Soviet people poorer, and expanding the profits of the mafia oligarchs:

During 1986-88 the Soviet Government passed legislation legalizing a wider range of individual private enterprise and encouraging the formation of cooperatives, particularly in the area of consumer goods and services. (…). These measures allowed the emergence of a new group of high-income earners.

Although cooperatives did provide some consumer goods and services, this boost was smaller than hoped for because of a series of restrictive amendments to the Law on Cooperatives, changing tax laws; supply difficulties, obstruction from local officials. and negative popular reaction to private activity. Many cooperatives simply … stole cheap state goods and resold them at much higher prices. Other cooperatives avoided harassment by tying themselves closely to state-controlled firms and producing goods and services for these enterprises rather than directly for the early 1991, public. According to [CLASSIIFED CIA SOURCE], only 15 percent of what the cooperatives produced was sold directly to the public.

Growing shortages and higher incomes encouraged growth of legal and illegal private economic activity, which diverted more goods away from state stores. High prices and high profits transferred money from workers to entrepreneurs. black-marketeers, and racketeers. Private incomes began to dwarf state wages.

Even with more rapid wage increases, the average state worker's wage still trailed that of the average cooperative member. Moreover, much private and shadow-economy business transferred to a hard currency basis, promoting the development of a de facto parallel currency that further devalued the rubles earned by state workers and pensioners.

(WINNERS AND LOSERS: INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, November 1991, p. 2) (IMG)

The Gorbachev-engineered mafia promoted inflation:

Even with more rapid wage increases, the average state worker's wage still trailed that of the average cooperative member. Moreover, much private and shadow-economy business transferred to a hard currency basis, promoting the development of a de facto parallel currency that further devalued the rubles earned by state workers and pensioners. (WINNERS AND LOSERS: INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, November 1991, p. 2) (IMG)

The Nazi Germans supported Russian chauvinism as means of driving a wedge between the Russian people and the other ethnicities in the USSR, hence to partition the USSR and isolate the very Russia they pretended to support; Tito's gang picked up Hitler's mantle and Yugoslav spies in the USSR promoted Russian chauvinism so to drive this wedge and pave the way for the partition of the USSR. Gorbachev and Eurasian Titoists continued the legacies of Hitler and Tito and privileged the Slavs over the Caucasian and Central Asian populations, hence driving a wedge between these nationalities and provoking bourgeois-nationalist separatist sentiments:

Under Gorbachev, income differences among the republics increased. The change in average monthly wages since 1985 shows that the Slavic and Baltic republics were clear winners, while the Caucasus and Central Asian republics, whose wages were already below the country average, slipped even further behind. In addition to relative differences among republics in wage compensation, income differences within republics also widened. Differentials tend to be the widest in Central Asia and the Caucasus, where the mean wage is low and the shadow economy is particularly active. (WINNERS AND LOSERS: INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, November 1991, p. 4) (IMG)

The economy was Balkanized, and bourgeois-nationalist officials were able to promote their own region's ‘interests’ over the rest of the Eurasian Heartland, hence widening the gap between nationalities, paving the way for partition:

The devolution of economic authority to republic and local governments and the economic decline led to a Balkanization of the union market that helped to increase regional disparities in the supply of food and consumer goods. To protect their own consumer markets, local officials created barriers to trade, forbidding the export of certain deficit goods or limiting the purchase of some items to local residents only. Agricultural regions increasingly preferred to use their output locally or barter it for scarce consumer goods rather than sell it to the state for devalued rubles. The Soviet Union's former "showcase" cities, Moscow and Leningrad (St. Petersburg), and centers of heavy industry in the Urals suffered most. With a weak local agricultural base, few attractive goods to barter, and panic buying by the population, these cities

became the most poorly stocked of urban centers. (WINNERS AND LOSERS: INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, November 1991, pp. 2-3) (IMG)

 

TimelineDescription automatically generated with medium confidence

(WINNERS AND LOSERS: INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN

THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, November 1991, p. 4)

 

To summarize:

Economic policies introduced under the banner of perestroyka resulted in a general slide in Soviet living standards and a growing inequality between socioeconomic groups.  (WINNERS AND LOSERS: INCREASING SOCIAL STRATIFICATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION, CIA, Directorate of Intelligence, November 1991, p. III) (IMG)

 

With the ‘need’ for medical ‘humanitarian aid’ in Moscow as her excuse, Raisa Gorbacheva received money from the United States in the 1980s. As the New York Times reported:

Raisa M. Gorbachev, wife of the former Soviet President, … helped secure thousands of dollars worth of Western aid. (Medical Care in Russia Seems Near Collapse, New York Times Archives, May 9, 1992) (IMG)

One of the CIA operatives providing financial aid to the Gorbachevs’ ‘humanitarian’ project was Sun Myung Moon. Sun Myung Moon was a South Korean CIA spy arrested in 1947 by the North Korean government and released in 1950 during the Korean War. He subsequently founded the Unification Church which was a front for the South Korean CIA (KCIA), which was the South Korean comprador intelligence service established and run by America’s CIA:

In Congressional hearings [of the United States,] Moon was accused of working with South Korean intelligence in order to buy influence with the US government, with some US officials regarding the Unification Church as a "front" for the Korean CIA. (Reverend Sun Myung Moon: Self-styled 'prophet' and founder of the Unification Church, The Independent, September 4, 2012) (IMG)

The Rev. Sun Myun Moon's Unification Church was founded by a director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, Kim Chong Pil, as a political tool in 1961, according to intelligence reports released by a House investigating subcommittee. (Moon’s Church was Founded by Korean CIA Chief, Panel Says, reprinted in CIA, p. 1) (IMG)

Among the financial sponsors of Raisa Gorbacheva was the South Korean spy Sun Myung Moon. A 1990 report by The Economist stated:

Even the Rev Sun Myung Moon is getting in on the acthe has given $100,000 to Mrs Raisa Gorbachev…. (The Economist, Volume 317, Issues 7683-7687, 1990) (IMG)

The funds provided to the Gorbachev family could only be of a money-laundered nature. Note that the Gorbachev family systematically destroyed the economy of Eurasia and the health of the Soviet peoples. That same family which destroyed the health and welfare of the people was setting up a ‘humanitarian’ project for ‘medical assistance’ to the people, and ostensibly for this ‘medical’ ‘humanitarian’ project, they were receiving these funds from the Anglo-American intelligence agencies. Actually, it was obvious that the ‘medical’ ‘humanitarian’ project, run by a Gorbachev family that destroyed the medicine of Eurasia and which caused a massive humanitarian crisis, could not have been anything but a money-laundering cover through which to receive funds from Anglo-American intelligence agencies and their front organizations, such as the Unification Church.

 

All along, behind Gorbachev lied the KGB chiefs Yevgeny Primakov and Viktor Chebrikov. They were the real and main figures behind Gorbachev. Gorbachev was a cover for the corrupt and traitorous chiefs of the KGB.

The class struggles in society always reflect themselves in the configuration of the power positions held in a state. It is therefore quite common for one of the high-ranking security officials of a state to be a traitor to that state. (...). All of this may seem strange at first, but it is not surprising in the slightest when we account for the fact that class struggles in a society affect the positional configuration in the cabinet, i.e. they affect the question of whom from what faction becomes the head of which government institution. Socialist class struggles help the proletariat destroy the material bases of the anti-proletarian classes, thus allowing for the workers’ state to consolidate control over its own state and to launch a great purge against the intelligence agents reliant upon the anti-proletarian classes in the society. Unfortunately, in Eurasia by the Gorbachev era, the state was not a workers’ state but was rather a dictatorship of the comprador bourgeoisie, particularly of the corrupt bureaucrats. This gave the upper hand to the anti-communist bureaucratic traitors who were leading the KGB, and such anti-communist bureaucrats pursued their agenda through the face of a ‘pro-democracy’ intellectual, Mikhail Gorbachev.

The root of the Gorbachev group emanated directly from Yuri Andropov, who, as was mentioned in C20S13, was a Beriaite operative assisting the MI6-backed Nazi rebels in Hungary in 1956 and collaborating with Tito’s group. Sergio Beria recalled how the Anglo-Yugoslav agent and KGB chief Yuri Andropov told Sergo Beria:

‘I have closely studied your father’s proposals on economic and foreign policy fields. Many of them are absolutely correct.’ (‘Beria, My Father: Inside Stalin’s Kremlin’, Sergo Beria, p. 277) (IMG)

The rise of Gorbachev to power brought Andropov’s allies in the KGB back to power.

Former KGB official Vyacheslav Matuzov confirmed that Gorbachev-era KGB leader Primakov was implementing Andropov’s plans regarding Eurasia:

The personality of Primakov is conspiratorial to the limit to this day. I believe that he was the main actor who completed Andropov's plan to reorganize the Soviet Union. In simple terms, Primakov was overseeing the process - all these years. (‘Vyacheslav Matuzov: Mikhail Gorbachev was a pawn in the plan for the collapse of the USSR’, EurAsia Daily, interviewer: Sarkis Tsaturyan, March 11, 2019) (IMG)

The KGB as a whole was progressive and anti-imperialist, just like how the Mossad, Pentagon, and the Saudi Mukhaberat were, as wholes, reactionary. Yet just as how the Mossad, Pentagon, and the Saudi Mukhaberat were led by revolutionary traitors to such reactionary institutions, so was it also the case that the KGB was led by reactionary traitors to such a progressive institution. Such was why the KGB chief Yuri Andropov distrusted the medium ranks of the KGB command. During his years as KGB chief, Yuri Andropov established Eurasian think tanks that lied outside of the KGB. The Eurasian think tanks were centers in which American intelligence agents would begin their career in the Eurasian state hierarchy. Andropov first planted his agents in these think tanks and then would, over time, elevate these agents in the Eurasian state hierarchy:

The KGB was a system that did not allow to deviate from the general line. Andropov, himself creating this system, understood that if information gets into it, then it automatically becomes utilized by many employees who may be dissatisfied with one or another political position of the leadership.

Therefore, further changes (“restructuring”) were carried out not on the basis of the KGB, but with the help of the KGB, but outside the framework of the KGB. Where did Primakov come from? This is not the KGB system. He is from the side shoots that Andropov created, being already the chairman of the KGB and a member of the Politburo. Director of the Institute of USA and Canada, Georgi Arbatov, director of IMEMO Nikolai Inozemtsev, director of the Institute of Oriental Studies Bobojan Gafurov .

These were parallel structures that duplicated the KGB. Outwardly, they worked in conjunction with the party apparatus. But in reality, these institutions were so strong, being under the patronage of Andropov, that the influence of the leading departments of the Central Committee on them was zero.

(‘Vyacheslav Matuzov: Mikhail Gorbachev was a pawn in the plan for the collapse of the USSR’, EurAsia Daily, interviewer: Sarkis Tsaturyan, March 11, 2019) (IMG)

Bronfman, the President of the Zionist pro-imperialist intelligence front (chapter 16) ‘World Jewish Congress’, noted that the intelligentsia and the KGB were the only two categories supporting Gorbachev:

IN THE USSR, BRONFMAN SAID, THERE HAD BEEN A VIRTUAL "SEA CHANGE" IN DOMESTIC ACCEPTANCE OF JEWS AND JUDAISM. THIS EVEN INCLUDED THE IMPENDING OPENING OF A JEWISH CULTURAL CENTER IN WHAT HAD BEEN A MOSCOW SYNAGOGUE. AT THE SAME TIME, HE ADDED, THE COMMITMENT WAS REAL TO RESOLVING JEWISH EMIGRATION…. THE PROBLEM WAS, HE FELT, THAT EVERYTHING DEPENDED ON GORBACHEV "AND I AM SKEPTICAL ABOUT HIS ABILITY TO SURVIVE." HE ACCOMPANIED THIS JUDGMENT WITH A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE PROBLEMS GORBACHEV FACES, NOTING THAT THE ONLY TWO GROUPS NOW BACKING HIM WERE THE INTELLIGENTSIA AND THE KGB. (‘SUBJECT: WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS PRESIDENT BRONFMAN ON MIDDLE EAST, SOVIET UNION; ASIDES ON US ADMINISTRATION, AUSTRIA; GOL BALANCED’, US State Department, January 27, 1989, p. 4. Bold added.) (IMG)

The Gorbachev group, backed by the Chebrikov-Primakov group in the KGB, also gave a major boost to the CIA-Mossad presence in Eurasia. The Joint Distribution Committee, a CIA-Mossad front, was invited to and welcomed in Moscow. In an article for Jerusalem Post, Isi Leibler wrote:

In 1959 as a young graduate visiting Israel, I was recruited by Shaul Avigur, the talented head of Nativ (the then-covert agency dealing with Soviet Jews) who played an enormous role behind the scenes in the formulation of policy during the early years of the state. (Candidly Speaking: A triumph of light over darkness, The Jerusalem Post, Isi Leibler, November 2, 2010) (IMG)

As may be recalled by the reader from C16S1, Shaul Avigur was the founder of the Mossad. There were co-founders of the Mossad, but the most well-known and most prominent among all of them was none other than Shaul Avigur, who was also the head of the Nativ (the organization in which the Mossad official Ya’kov Kedmi was a prominent official), as well as a co-leader of the American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (‘Joint’) which was the CIA-Mossad intelligence organization condemned for being involved in the assassination plots during the Doctors’ Plot case. For his subversive activities for the Mossad, Leibler had been arrested by socialist Soviet counter-intelligence:

Before the collapse of the USSR, Leibler made numerous visits to the Soviet Union and developed close associations with the leading Jewish dissidents and refuseniks. The visits came to an end in 1980 with his arrest and expulsion from the Soviet Union. (Isi Leibler z’l (Honorary Vice-President), World  Jewish Congress) (IMG)

However, soon enough, the time for Leibler’s return came. Under the cover of ‘glasnost’, the MI6 spy Gorbachev opened up Eurasia for imperialist-fascist secret services to gather intelligence. As such, Leibler wrote in reference to his brief expulsion in 1980,:

Ironically, it was only seven years later, in 1987, that my wife and I were invited by the Moscow chief rabbi of the KGB-controlled Archipova Synagogue to be his guests over Rosh Hashana and address worshipers from the pulpit. Giving a Zionist address in broken Yiddish to a packed synagogue in the presence of refusenik friends who had previously refused to set foot in this KGB-controlled center was an unforgettable experience. I subsequently learned that I was the first international Jewish leader invited to evaluate the Gorbachev reforms.

That was followed by a series of visits which culminated in the establishment of the first Jewish cultural center since the revolution, named after Solomon Mykhoels, the famous Yiddish poet murdered by Stalin in 1948.

(Candidly Speaking: A triumph of light over darkness, The Jerusalem Post, Isi Leibler, November 2, 2010) (IMG)

The World  Jewish Congress too stated:

Paradoxically, when Gorbachev liberalised the system with the introduction of perestroika, Leibler became the first international Jewish leader to be invited to the Soviet Union to evaluate the changes. He subsequently launched the first Jewish cultural centre in the Soviet Union – the Solomon Mykhoels Centre in Moscow – together with the first Hebrew Song Festivals in Moscow and Leningrad. (Isi Leibler z’l (Honorary Vice-President), World  Jewish Congress) (IMG)

It should also come as no surprise that the Gorbachev group permitted the JDC to officially establish a base in Moscow:

Reflecting the profound changes unfolding in the Soviet Union, the Solomon Mikhoels International Cultural Center opens in Moscow, with the help of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC or "The Joint"), a social welfare agency whose mission is to assist Jews throughout the world. (Timeline of the American Soviet Jewry Movement, American Jewish Historical Society (AJHS)) (IMG)

Gorbachev was keen on sending Eurasia’s Yiddish and Juhuri peoples (‘Soviet Jews’) as cannon-fodder for Ariel Sharon:

Although the lack of direct flights was not hampering the exodus per se (a record 71,196 Jews were to leave in 1989), it did slow the potential emigration to Israel, which, nonetheless, had risen rapidly in the last three months of 1989 (1,565 Jews arrived from the USSR in October, 1,936 in November, and 3,590 in December). Indeed, the head of the Jewish Agency's Aliyah (immigration) Department, Uri Gordon, had predicted that with direct flights, about 1,000 Soviet immigrants a day could land in Israel. (Soviet Policy Toward Israel Under Gorbachev, Robert Owen Freedman, p. 85) (IMG)

The Washington Times, an American news media founded by the prominent South Korean CIA operative Sun Myung Mun, reported that CIA director Webster had remarked that Gorbachev, under the cover of joint anti-terrorism efforts, has been getting the KGB to cooperate further with the CIA:

CIA Director William Webster said yesterday that the governments of the United States and the Soviet Union have discussed establishing a joint CIA-KGB cooperative effort to combat international terrorism.

(…). A tape recording of his remarks was obtained by The Washington Times.

(…). Soviet officials first approached Western governments in late 1986 about working together to oppose terrorism as part of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s new foreign policy initiatives.

Moscow was linked to the support and training of international terrorists by Reagan administration CIA chief William Casey, who said in a 1987 speech that the Soviets have been training up to 600 terrorists each year in training camps in Eastern Europe.

(…). The Soviet overtures on joint cooperation appear to be gestures resulting from Mr. Gorbachev's glasnost, or openness, policies, Mr. Webster said. The January meeting in Moscow between KGB chief Vladimir Kryuchkov and U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union Jack Matlock was another similar gesture, he said.

State Department officials said at the time of the meeting that Mr. Kryuchkov assured Mr. Matlock that the KGB is fully supporting the Gorbachev reform program.

Mr. Webster said he has not seen any indications that the KGB is opposing Mr. Gorbachev's reforms. But he said the KGB is "a potential source of trouble" for Mr. Gorbachev if his reform program fails.

Rand Corporation Sovietologist Jeremy R. Azrael stated in a report on the KGB released last week that former KGB Chairman Viktor Chebrikov is the leading candidate to replace Mr. Gorbachev if hardliners pull off a coup to oust him.

Mr. Webster said the KGB currently appears to be on Mr. Gorbachev's "side of the aisle" in the struggle between reformers and hardliners.

(JOINT CIA-KGB TARGETING OF TERRORISM TALKED ABOUT, Washington Times, Bill Gertz, April 7, 1989, p. 1. In: CIA Archives) (IMG)

Again, the KGB as a whole was an anti-imperialist body – and rumours to the contrary are baseless – but the high command of the KGB were utter traitors. Gorbachev’s rise to power brought the KGB chief Chebrikov swiftly to power as well:

Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev, moving with unprecedented speed to consolidate his power, has elevated the head of the KGB and two other key party officials to the ruling Politburo…. (‘KGB chief, 2 others elevated to Politburo’, Washington Times, Michael J. Bonafield, April 24, 1985, p. 1. In: CIA archives) (IMG)

Mr. Chebrikov, who is a colonel general, was named director of the KGB in December 1982. His was one of the late Yuri V. Andropov’s first major personnel changes after he took control of the party in that year. Mr. Chebrikov had worked under Mr. Andropov during the 15 years Mr. Andropov headed the KGB. (‘KGB chief, 2 others elevated to Politburo’, Washington Times, Michael J. Bonafield, April 24, 1985, p. 1. In: CIA archives) (IMG)

In his memoirs, the CIA-Mossad arms contractor Ari Ben Menashe has documented extensively the contacts of the KGB chief Chebrikov with the MI6, CIA, and Mossad. Another of the KGB elements from Andropov’s group was Viktor Sharapov and he too was closely associated to Gorbachev:

Soviet relations with socialist countries are the domain of Viktor Sharapov, the one carryover on Gorbachev's inner staff. He appeared frequently at the side of Andropov and later Chernenko and now assists Gorbachev during meetings with the leaders of socialist countries. Sharapov has ties to Andropov and the KGB, experience in the media, and expertise in Asian affairs--an area receiving significant policy attention under Gorbachev. All of these factors, in our view, make him a logical choice for Gorbachev's circle of advisers. (…). Sharapov's position as an aide to Gorbachev on Socialist Bloc affairs is probably due as much to his personal connections as to his expertise. He may have been associated with the KGB since about 1972, and he served as a personal aide to Andropov from about 1976 (when Andropov was still chairman of Andropov's death in February 1984. In addition, while Andropov was ailing during the last few months of his tenure as General Secretary, only Sharapov and Gorbachev were permitted to see him. Sharapov retained his job as bloc affairs adviser throughout the brief tenure of Konstantin Chernenko. He was elected a member of the Central Auditing Commission at the close of the recent party congress on 6 March 1986. (USSR: GORBACHEV'S PERSONAL ADVISERS, CIA, May 8, 1986, p. 5) (IMG)

Two other major Gorbachev allies were Ligachev and Ryzhkov:

Yegor Ligachev, 64, and Nikolai Ryzhkov, 55, were named directly to the Politburo from the party Secretariat. The new Soviet leader has had a close working relationship with these men, who skipped the normal step of being named candidate members. (‘KGB chief, 2 others elevated to Politburo’, Washington Times, Michael J. Bonafield, April 24, 1985, p. 1. In: CIA archives) (IMG)

Only much later when Gorbachev became extremely unpopular, Ligachev opportunistically ‘defected’ to the camp of Gorbachev’s ‘critics’.

 

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Original photo of Gorabchev in home page obtained from the following source and was photoshopped thereafter. 

https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/mikhail-gorbachev-soviet-leader-helped-end-cold-war-died-rcna45553