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The Nazis, not the Soviets, were responsible for Katyn Massacre,

American intelligence documents corroborate

The History of the USSR & the Peoples’ Democracies

Chapter 13, Section 3 (C13S3) 

 

Saed Teymuri

 

In September 1951, the American regime began questioning the facts on Katyn, casting doubts on the so-called ‘Soviet narrative’, leading the US Congress to ‘reinvestigate’. The investigation by the Congress coincided with the completion of the CIA’s special study, in cooperation with the Office of the Chief of Military History of the Pentagon, on the Soviet treatment and interrogation of war prisoners. Dated and published in September 1951, the American intelligence service’s study presented a picture that starkly contrasted with the Nazi ‘facts’ which the Congressional ‘investigators’ planned to hear. Hereby follows an excerpt of the US intelligence document:

B. Soviet Instructions Issued in 1940

A set of instructions concerning the collection, interrogation, and evacuation of prisoners (or deserters) was issued by the Deputy Peoples' Commander of Defense in February 1940. The Germans found a copy of these instructions in Poland in the captured files of a Russian tank unit. (…). Many of the 1940 instructions apparently remained in force, at least in principle, throughout the war…. (Russian Methods of Interrogating Captured Personnel World War II, CIA, the Office of the Chief of the Military History, US Department of the Army, Kermit Stewart (Major, Infantry, US Army), Orland Ward (Major General, USA Chief), September 1951, pp. 138-139, underline original) (IMG)

The CIA-Pentagon document added:

Article 13 of the instructions stated that “all military personnel . . . must be generous to an enemy prisoner and render any assistance in order to save his life.” In keeping with this general rule, Soviet military personnel was specifically forbidden to take from or exchange with a prisoner the latter’s gas mask, personal (toilet) kit, uniform, underclothing, footwear, belt, personal belongings, and money. Collection and search of prisoners during battle was to be carried out in terrain protected from enemy fire. (Russian Methods of Interrogating Captured Personnel World War II, CIA, the Office of the Chief of the Military History, US Department of the Army, Kermit Stewart (Major, Infantry, US Army), Orland Ward (Major General, USA Chief), September 1951, p. 141) (IMG)

Elsewhere the American intelligence document stated:

While the killing of prisoners was tolerated by lower echelon commanders it would appear that the Soviet high command disapproved from the beginning. A directive (No. 1798) of the Soviet Government, dated 1 July 1941, reiterated humanitarian aspects of the 1940 instructions and categorically ordered: “It is prohibited to insult and maltreat prisoners.” A general order issued in December 1941 revealed that the supreme command was dissatisfied with interrogation results, that it censured military personnel because so few prisoners ever arrived at array head-quarters for interrogation and prohibited the killing of prisoners by combat troops. (Russian Methods of Interrogating Captured Personnel World War II, CIA, the Office of the Chief of the Military History, US Department of the Army, Kermit Stewart (Major, Infantry, US Army), Orland Ward (Major General, USA Chief), September 1951, p. 161) (IMG)

While writing in probabilistic terms, the document nevertheless stated that the ‘Soviet high command disapproved from the beginning’ ‘the killing of prisoners’ and that as early as ‘1940’, these ‘instructions … remained in force’. Citing ‘a copy of these instructions in Poland in the captured files of a Russian’ which the ‘Germans found … in Poland’, the US intelligence arrived at the conclusion that the ‘1940 instruction’ contained ‘humanitarian aspects’. Writing in definitive terms, the CIA stated that the ‘general rule’ for the ‘Soviet military personnel’ was to not take actions that would lead to the death of the prisoner and to abide by ‘Article 13’ which called for generosity towards the prisoners. Thus, while not explicitly mentioning Katyn, the author of the US intelligence document, who based his research off of numerous CIA and German intelligence documents, practically agreed – at times with a dose of probabilism and sometimes in a definitive form – that the Soviet high command was opposed to maltreating prisoners.

Among the most important pieces of evidence is that the bodies of the individuals arrested by the Nazis had been found at Katyn. A US Congress report – which blamed the Soviets for the Katyn massacre – nonetheless admitted:

in several instances families were officially informed by the Germans that bodies of people who … had been arrested during the German occupation had been found at Katyn. (FACTS AND DOCUMENTS CONCERNING POLISH PRISONERS OF WAR CAPTURED BY THE U.S.S.R DURING THE 1939 CAMPAIGN. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 1738) (IMG)

It goes without saying that finding the bodies of individuals whom the Nazis captured shows that the Nazis, not the Soviets, were the forces handling the fate of those captured individuals: death in Katyn.

In his intelligence report (written in an abbreviated way) from the US Embassy in Moscow to the US State Department, the prominent anti-Soviet Cold Warrior Averell Harriman remarked:

[It] Appears [that the] Soviets [are] conducting very detailed examination [of] each body by autopsy and by examination [of] clothing, remaining personal effects, and papers. Evidence which made greatest impression to strengthen [the] Russian case was:

(One) Most soldiers exhumed to date were enlisted men rather than officers, as Germans claimed.

(Two) Methodical method of execution, each having been killed by one shot at base of skull.

(Three) Dates of papers exhibited from November 1940 to June 1941.

(Four) Testimony by witnesses re[garding] unsuccessful attempt to evacuate Poles at time of German breakthrough to Smolensk and re[garding] Poles engaged [in] road work in area for Russians and Germans in 1941.

(“Telegram From United States Embassy”, To: President and Secretary of State, by: William Averell Harriman, Strictly Confidential, Moscow, January 25, 1944. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 2124) (IMG)

Though Harriman was a Roosevelt-era US official affiliated with the Democratic Party, his vehement anti-Sovietism and anti-communism is well-documented and not disputed. Stanley Meisler, the former deputy director of the Office of Evaluation and Research in the US intelligence front ‘Peace Corps’, wrote:

Walter Lippmann, the influential columnist, believed that the United States was deliberately and dangerously humiliating the Soviet Union. The American delegates, Lippmann believed, had fallen under the sway of the hard-line anti-Soviet views of Ambassador Harriman. When Harriman told a news conference in San Francisco that "our objectives and the Kremlin's objectives are irreconcilable," Lippmann walked out. (United Nations: A History, Stanley Meisler, 2011) (IMG)

It is worth noting that the remarks made by Averell Harriman, the anti-Soviet Cold Warrior, were in no way under the pressure of the fact of the official ‘alliance’ between the USSR and the USA. The following excerpts of the conversation between Harriman and another well-known anti-Soviet US official O’Konski are instructive:

Mr. O'KONSKI. The reason why I ask that is that it leads up to the second question I have.

All during this time that you were the Ambassador, there were some 15,000 Polish officers murdered, and our Government here in Washington did not show enough interest to request you to find the essential facts concerning the case; is that correct? Not once were you communicated with for information. They did not care what happened to those officers; did they?

Mr. HARRIMAN. I cannot say they did not care, but it is a fact they did not ask me to do it. (…).

Mr. O'KONSKI. If the answer is not that they did not care, the other answer is that they were so afraid they might learn the truth about who murdered them that again they might get afraid of that great big thing; that Joe Stalin might get mad at us and make a separate peace with Hitler.

Mr. HARRIMAN. I don't think that would be the case at all. I never saw any evidence of that. There was a constant effort on the part of the United States Government to protect the interests of the Poles insofar as it was possible to do so.

(“The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, pp. 2124-2125) (IMG)

Averell Harriman’s claims regarding the massacre at Katyn are backed up by the report of his daugther. In her intelligence report for the US Embassy in Moscow and the State Department, the American intelligence operative and diplomat Kathleen Harriman Mortimer stated:

it is my opinion that the Poles were murdered by the Germans. The most convincing evidence to uphold this was the methodical manner in which the job was done, something the Commission thought not sufficiently important to stress. (Report Written by Mrs. Kathleen Harriman Mortimer After Visiting Katyn in January 1944, [Enclosure No. 2 to Despatch No. 207 dated February 23, 1944, from American Embassy, Moscow]. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 2133) (IMG)

Again, Kathleen Harriman Mortimer was not under pressure to reach any of her conclusions throughout her report, either:

Mr. O’KONSKI. (…). Did anybody exert any pressure or any force or any hint to you at all in arriving at your conclusion?

Mrs. MORTIMER. No.

(“The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, pp. 2147-2148) (IMG)

The method of execution alluded to by Kathleen Harriman was, as Averell Harriman also stated, the one shot at the base of the skull. This fact about the method of Nazi execution has also been corroborated by Paul Sturman of the ‘Foreign Language Service’ of the US government’s ‘Office of War Information’ (OWI). In a letter to Alan Cranston of the OWI, Paul Sturman described the “shot in the nape of the neck” as:

a method practiced by Nazi executioners. (Letter by Paul Sturman to Mr. Alan Cranston. From Washington D.C. to 12370 Hilltop, Los Altos, Calif. November 5, 1952. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 2180) (IMG)

Reporting to Washington during the Second World War, the US State Department official John Melby remarked:

On balance, however, and despite loopholes, the Russian case is convincing. (“The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, pp. 2124-2125. Note the Select Committee was citing an excerpt of the report by Melby.) (IMG)

Melby denied that he was under pressure for making such a report:

Mr. PUCINSKI. Mr. Melby. did you discuss your visit to Katyn, and what you saw there, with the Soviet officials on your way back to Moscow?

Mr. MELBY. I don't remember talking about it to the Soviet officials. There were one or two people from the Foreign Office who escorted us, and I don't remember any others. I don't remember discussing it with them.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Did any Soviet official suggest to you that you might come up with the conclusion that it was the Germans that did this!

Mr. MELBY. The Commission themselves that investigated it.

Mr. PUCINSKI. I mean on the train, in personal conference.

Mr. MELBY. No.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Did you feel at the time you wrote this report … [the] conclusion that the Germans did this – did you feel that possibly was the answer your superiors in the State Department and Washington would prefer?

Mr. MELBY. No; I had not reason to have any idea as to what kind of answer they would want.

Mr. PUCINSKI. You had no reason?

Mr. MELBY. No.

Mr. PUCINSKI. Nevertheless, you knew that there were very close relations at that time between the United States and the Soviet Union?

Mr. MELBY. Yes sir.

Mr. PUCINSKI. And did you feel that might be somewhat putting yourself in an unfavorable light if you drew your conclusions on the basis of your reasoning and the rest of your report, and concluded the Soviets did this?

Mr. MELBY. No sir; not at all.

Mr. PUCINSKI. There was no such fear in your mind?

Mr. MELBY. No, sir; not at all.

Mr. PUCINSKI. How long were you there, Mr. Melby?

Mr. MELBY. We arrived early one morning, 7 or 8 o’clock, and were there in the area until about 2 a.m. the following morning.

(…). Mr. PUCINSKI. And you are certain that nobody asked you to voice a conclusion on your visit to Katyn?

Mr. MELBY. Absolutely certain.

Mr. PUCINSKI. How long were you in Russia before you went to Katyn?

Mr. MELBY. I arrived there in May 1943.

Mr. PUCINSKI. How many months before?

Mr. MELBY. It would have been about 7 months.

Mr. PUCINSKI. How long were you there after you went to Katyn.

Mr. MELBY. Until April 1945, a little over a year more.

(“The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, pp. 2152-2153.) (IMG)

When the Eisenhower Administration ascended to power, John Melby was demoted on charges of close relations with the Soviet intelligence service. Therefore, it is possible that he may have been ‘biased’ in favor of the USSR. Nonetheless, his remarks are supported by the remarks of the viciously anti-Soviet Averell Harriman and his daughter Kathleen.

The Anglo-American media claims that, behind the scenes, Roosevelt agreed that the Soviets were responsible for the Katyn Massacre. Not true. In fact, when George Earle presented ‘evidence’ of Soviet responsibility for the massacre, Roosevelt, as quoted by Earle himself, responded:

George, this is entirely German propaganda and a German plot. I am absolutely convinced the Russians did not do this. (“The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 2204) (IMG)

The pseudo-‘evidence’ presented by the Nazi Germans is documented by American intelligence to have been obtained through torture and terror. The viciously anti-Soviet American intelligence operative Harriman Mortimer reported:

In the spring of 1943 the Germans published stories in the three quisling local papers telling of the murder of Poles at Katyn during March and April 1940, by the NKVD. (…). Next the Germans searched out witnesses to confirm their story. We saw three men who had been questioned and beaten by the Gestapo, one of whom was the Gnezdov station master, the two others peasants. All three were tortured into signing documents, the contents of which they did not understand. (Report Written by Mrs. Kathleen Harriman Mortimer After Visiting Katyn in January 1944, [Enclosure No. 2 to Despatch No. 207 dated February 23, 1944, from American Embassy, Moscow]. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 2137) (IMG)

3. Documents found on the Polish Corpses: The final act of the Germans was to route out and either kill or deport any person who might have information proving the whole Polish incident was a fake. They caught all but a few of the men they had beaten into signing false evidence and the three girls who had been servants at the Goat Hill datcha.

Despite the thoroughness of the pocket ripping by the Germans, out of the seven hundred corpses the Commission have so far investigated, 146 items have been found. The earliest date was found on a postcard — March the latest — an unmailed postcard dated June 20, 1941. We were shown all these documents and trinkets and the most important and significant ones were translated for us. They included letters from Warsaw and Moscow dated in the winter of 1940, receipts for valuables dated in the Spring of 1941 and numerous newspaper clippings dated from early 1940 through early 1941. (Report Written by Mrs. Kathleen Harriman Mortimer After Visiting Katyn in January 1944, [Enclosure No. 2 to Despatch No. 207 dated February 23, 1944, from American Embassy, Moscow]. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, p. 2138) (IMG)

As further confirmed by K. Harriman Mortimer, the Nazi Germans also looted, from the pockets of as many Polish units as possible, the documents dated later than April 1940 so to ‘prove’ that the massacre was carried out in April 1940:

As they were dug up, the Germans tagged each corpse with a metal number, slit open the pockets and removed all papers they could find that bore dates later than March and April 1940 and looted the pockets of any money and valuables. They imported a corpse specialist called "Butz" from Berlin to make an investigation and to prove scientifically that the bodies found were buried in the Spring of 1940. (Report Written by Mrs. Kathleen Harriman Mortimer After Visiting Katyn in January 1944, [Enclosure No. 2 to Despatch No. 207 dated February 23, 1944, from American Embassy, Moscow]. In: “The Katyn Forest Massacre: Hearings Before the Select Committee to Conduct and Investigation of the Facts, Evidence, and Circumstances of the Katyn Forest Massacre”, 82nd Congress, Parts 5-7. 1952, pp. 2137-2138) (IMG)

Again, none of these remarks in the report by K. Harriman Mortimer, the henchwoman of Averell Harriman, were under the pressure of the official ‘alliance’ with the USSR. 

A document published by the Yale University Press ... stated that in the killing field,:

two calibers of firearms were used in the executions: in the overwhelming majority of cases, smaller than 8-mm, that is, 7.75 mm or less; in a lesser number, larger than 8-mm, that is, 9-mm. (Katyn: A Crime without Punishment, Yale University Press, Head Office of State Archives in Poland, Federal Archival Agency of Russia, Wojciech Materski, p. 321) (IMG)

[Also:]

          The only two German pistols listed, the Parabellum P08 and the Walther P38, are both 9 mm. (Europe Central, William Vollmann)

The Soviet military did not have access to 9 mm pistols until long after the Second World War, as the following table from the CIA suggests:

(‘Production of Soviet Land Combat Equipment<Sanitized> 1944-1962’, CIA, NSA, 1962-1963, p. 61) (IMG)

 

 

There is also pseudo-‘evidence’ presented by Mikhail Gorbachev during the era of Perestroika ‘proving’ Soviet responsibility for Katyn massacre. “‘Who is thy witness?’ they asked a fox. ‘My own tail’, the fox replied” – so goes a Persian proverb. Never mind that the ‘documents’ presented by the Gorbachev group have been seriously challenged as having been fabricated. As I have documented in C24S4, Mikhail Gorbachev himself admitted in his post-1991 memoirs that he was a British spy providing top secret nuclear-military intelligence to Margaret Thatcher. In the context of Katyn, the conflict of interest implies that MI6 spy Gorbachev and his ‘evidence’ or ‘documents’ were not reliable on Katyn.

 

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Photoshopped version of the Yugoslav poster. https://ru-klukva-ru.livejournal.com/1255501.html?page=1